Borobudur is located on Java island, located 40 km northwest of the city of Yogyakarta, and 7 km south of Magelang. Kedu plains surrounding it is often referred to as the "Garden of Java" (The Garden of Java), because this land is very fertile, and its population is also very diligent. This plain is surrounded by four mountains, namely Mount Sumbing (3371 m) and Mount Sindoro (3135 m) in the northwest, and Mount Merbabu (3142 m) and Mount Merapi (2911 m) in the northeast.
This ancient building is the oldest stupa complex and also the largest stupa in the world. His name was listed as world cultural inheritance by UNESCO and is considered as one of the seven wonders of the world. Borobudur Temple was built by Samaratungga Syailendra Dynasty for more than 50 years, namely in the year 778-856 AD, 300 years before Angkor Wat (Cambodia), and 200 years before Notre Dame.
It is said that King Ashoka, Indian relics ever divide (salira) from Buddha Shakyamuni to 84 000 eggs and spread and bury it in all corners of the world. By storing the original sarira of Sakyamuni Buddha, the royal Syailendra has mobilized several hundred thousand people, then finish nan stately and beautiful building such large scale.
Borobudur terraces pyramidal, consisting of nine layers of floor, sixth floor of the bottom square-shaped platform, outermost circle is filled with relief gallery, a heritage warehouse famous sculpture in the world, with full length reaches 2.5 km, so the Borobudur, together with Egyptian pyramids, the Great Wall of China and Angkor Wat-Cambodia-named as the four ancient wonders of the east. 1.6 million pieces he composed by volcanic rock and built on a rocky hill dwarf with a height of 265 m above sea level, is the single largest Buddhist stupa in the world. The origins of the name "Borobudur" is expected from the Sanskrit "Vihara Buddha Ur," which means "temple of Buddha from the mountaintop."
Overall, Borobudur reaching 42 m high, but then once restored, the height is reduced to only 34.5 m, and has dimensions of 123 x 123 m. Borobudur has 10 floors or levels. First to the sixth floor of a rectangular shape, and the seventh to the tenth floor of a circle.
This temple faces east, and consists of 1460 panels, each of which has a width of 2 m. Area 2,500 m2 entire walls, and filled with relief. The number of panels that have existing reliefs 1212. According to research, the number of about 504 Buddhist statues, including the statues that are still intact and that has been destroyed. The restoration of Borobudur was done twice, ie from year 1905 - 1910, and the latter in the year 1973-1983.
In 1006 in a violent eruption of the volcano, Borobudur was buried under layers of volcanic ash, ancient Buddhist sites are buried and asleep in bed till one day in the year 1814 was rediscovered from behind a bushy tropical jungle. Raffles's deputy governor at the time the British to occupy the island of Java being Java, heard the story of hunters and residents of a large temple hidden in the jungle, so he sent WN-Dutch engineers to conduct a survey, Borobudur finally see the light of the sun again. In 1973 through the assistance of UNESCO, which launched a large-scale restoration of Borobudur before emitting his face, as seen today. Why Borobudur was built 100 years after the completion of Javanese people do not visit again to the place, even these complexes have been dumped, it is still a mystery.
Development of Borobudur Is Error Design?
The first stage
The first phase probably started around the year 780 AD. At this stage, a small building with three terraces piled established when another building was built and then destroyed. The building was probably originally designed as a multilevel pyramid.
The second phase
Changes more thoroughly carried out, whereby the top removed and replaced with a circular terrace with a series of three new circular patio. Stupa was also built on top of these terraces.
The fourth and fifth stages
Then, where is the location of design errors Borobudur? According to Director General of Culture, I Gusti Ngurah Anom in the "Symposium on The Secret Behind the Grandeur of Borobudur" organized Dhammasena Trisakti University in Jakarta, mid-March 2000, the design error was corrected by creating "extra leg" and covered the original foot. This is done in the second phase construction of Borobudur.
The existence of two feet was first known by Yzerman (1885) when conducting research to rescue Borobudur temple of danger of damage. Additional feet, as seen now, is very simple and is often called the terrace width. These cover a wide terrace at the foot of the original relief, which consists of 160 frames. In some frames there is a short article as simple guidelines for letters pemahatnya in Old Javanese. It turned out that the words used were also found in the book Mahakarmavibhangga which includes stories about how the law of karma in life.
Why genuine relief at the foot of Borobudur Temple is still a polemic closed among the archeologists. Some argue that the closure is just a technical problem so that the temple was no landslide, considering the original foot very steep. the others say that the closure was due to religious grounds. Argument, because the original reliefs at the foot of describing everyday life that sometimes memorable villain, seronok, and so forth. It is considered inappropriate is known by Buddhists who visit Borobudur (Kompas, 7 April 2000).But is it really an error occurred in the construction of Borobudur is design, no one knows.
At Borobudur, there are statues of Buddha with six different forms, or mudras. Keenam mudra Buddha tersebut adalah: Sixth Buddhist mudras are:
1. Bhumisparcamudra or "calling the earth to witness". The position where the Buddha's right hand touching the earth, placed above the right knee, with fingers pointing downward. This mudra symbolizes the Buddha's request to the God of the Earth to witness behaviors that Mara was right when he denied the allegations. Mudra is typical for Aksobhya Dhyani Buddhas.
2. Abhayamudra. Buddha's position where his right hand placed on the right thigh, with your palms facing upwards, a position that represents the effort penghalauan against fear. This is the Dhyani Buddha Mudra Amoghasiddi, North Buddha.
3. Dhyanamudra or "meditation". Open and placed both hands in his lap, where his right hand above the left hand and both thumbs touching each other. This is assumed to come from Amitabha, the Buddha Dhyani West.
4. Varamudra or "charity". Rotated into the top right hand and fingers down and placed in the right knee. Dhyani Buddha is Ratnasambhava, South Buddha.
5. Virtakamudra or position carefully weighing the decision, is depicted with his right hand raised position above the right knee, with your palms facing upwards, and the tip of the thumb touching the index finger. Dhyani Buddha is referred to here is a Buddhist from all directions.
6. Dharmacakramudra, or "Law Wheel rotation," which symbolizes Sakyamuni's first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares. Both hands held at chest, left hand under your right hand, and rotated upward with the thumb touching the ring finger, ring finger right hand while touching the left little finger. Position thus giving the impression that the hand wheel rotation, and connected with Vairocana, Dhyani Buddha Peak.
Relief at Borobudur Temple
The walls of the first gallery was decorated by four series of reliefs: two on the walls of the foyer, and two on the main wall. The second series of wall reliefs contained in the text is taken from Jatakas porch, or Acts births. It tells tales of life Shakyamuni (Gautama Buddha) in various incarnations before finally born as a human. The theme of these stories is self-sacrifice as a means of obtaining the good and the birth of a better in his next life, by achieving nirvana as the ultimate goal.
Level of the lower main walls are decorated with the birth of another story, which tells the life of other people besides Shakyamuni who also obtained enlightenment. Unlike Theravada Buddhism, where in it is believed that only one person who can get in this age of enlightenment, the followers of Mahayana Buddhism believe many creatures that have reached this phase. This text is called Avadanas.
At the level of the main wall is higher, his first gallery showing reliefs that tell the life of Sakyamuni (Siddharta Gautama) throughout her life as an ascetic prince who became a teacher. These reliefs began with the Buddha while he was in heaven before his last reincarnation, and ends with the first ceremony in Deer Park at Benares. This text is called Lalitavista.
The fifth and final series of three gallery occupies the top of Borobudur. Text is used as a source of inspiration called Gandavyuha. This engraving contains the story of a young man, the son of a trader, named Sudhana, who learn from one teacher to another teacher in the search for enlightenment. Most of the reliefs showing scenes boy traveling with a variety of transportation including trains horses and elephants, as well as the scene when she knelt in front of the teacher (kalayanamitra, or "good friend"), whether men, women, children and Bodhisattvas. Sudhana exploration ended in the Palace of Maitreya, the Buddha of the future, at the peak of Mount Sumeru, where he was given lessons and have different views.
Last series of reliefs contained in the upper terrace is taken from this text continued, called Bhadracari, where Sudhana vowed to become a Bodhisattva, and follow the example of certain named Samantabhadra Bodhisattva.
Bhadracari; "And then later, King Buddha will come, who will receive the enlightenment in the future, such a noble king Maitreya and so forth, and finally Samantabhadra, the Buddha of the Future"
Placement of relief at the highest level of the temple shows that this is the text of the most respected by the founder of the Borobudur. Relief scenes seem designed to encourage Sudhana pejiarah to follow the example when climbing a mountain, which symbolizes the highest goal and source of wisdom.
Overall, the fitting would not we call this temple is one very magical (that's why he became one of the seven wonders of the world!). Maybe before we never imagined, that in ancient times there was a human being capable of designing and building a monument as complex, as spektaluker, as well as beautiful Borobudur. Just imagine, piled stones one by one to form a high-rise buildings and mansions. Each part also has meaning, not original design.
Borobudur As One of the Seven Wonders of the World
Borobudur has been defined by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) as one of the seven wonders of the world human heritage. But these days we often hear that there were elections seven New Wonders of the World (New 7 Wonder of Nature), which will be announced on November 11, 2011, whereby the Borobudur Temple in the nomination does not go into these elections. However, UNESCO stressed that the selection of the New 7 Wonder of Nature is not a program of UNESCO but are made by private organizations that are domiciled in Munich.
This is video about Borobudur Temple:
1. “Antiquities of Central Java”, Insight Guides Indonesia, APA City Guide Publishing Company Ltd., 1993, hal. 77-78
2. “Borobudur and The Rise of Buddhism”, Indonesian Heritage: Ancient History, ed. John Miksic, Singapura: Archipelago Press, hal. 66-67
3. “Borobudur: A Prayer in Stone”, Singapura: Archipelago Press, 1990
4. “Borobudur: Form and Symbolism”, Indonesian Heritage: Ancient History, ed. John Miksic, Singapura: Archipelago Press, hal. 68-69
5. “Borobudur Pernah Salah Desain”, Kompas, 7 April 2000
6. “Candi Borobudur, Satu dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia”, www.kamusilmiah.com